Regulatory Role of the Morbillivirus Attachment Protein Head-to-Stalk Linker Module in Membrane Fusion Triggering.

Herren, Michael; Shrestha, Neeta; Wyss, Marianne; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Plattet, Philippe (2018). Regulatory Role of the Morbillivirus Attachment Protein Head-to-Stalk Linker Module in Membrane Fusion Triggering. Journal of virology, 92(18) American Society for Microbiology 10.1128/JVI.00679-18

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Morbillivirus (e.g., measles virus [MeV] and canine distemper virus [CDV]) host cell entry is coordinated by two interacting envelope glycoproteins, namely, an attachment (H) protein and a fusion (F) protein. The ectodomain of H proteins consists of stalk, connector, and head domains that assemble into functional noncovalent dimer-of-dimers. The role of the C-terminal module of the H-stalk domain (termed linker) and the connector, although putatively able to assume flexible structures and allow receptor-induced structural rearrangements, remains largely unexplored. Here, we carried out a nonconservative mutagenesis scan analysis of the MeV and CDV H-linker/connector domains. Our data demonstrated that replacing isoleucine 146 in H-linker (H-I146) with any charged amino acids prevented virus-mediated membrane fusion activity, despite proper trafficking of the mutants to the cell surface and preserved binding efficiency to the SLAM/CD150 receptor. Nondenaturing electrophoresis revealed that these charged amino acid changes led to the formation of irregular covalent H tetramers rather than functional dimer-of-dimers formed when isoleucine or other hydrophobic amino acids were present at residue position 146. Remarkably, we next demonstrated that covalent H tetramerization was not the only mechanism preventing F activation. Indeed, the neutral glycine mutant (H-I146G), which exhibited strong covalent tetramerization propensity, maintained limited fusion promotion activity. Conversely, charged H-I146 mutants, which additionally carried alanine substitution of natural cysteines (H-C139A and H-C154A) and thus were unable to form covalently linked tetramers, were fusion activation defective. Our data suggest a dual regulatory role of the hydrophobic residue at position 146 of the morbillivirus head-to-stalk H-linker module: securing the assembly of productive dimer-of-dimers and contributing to receptor-induced F-triggering activity. MeV and CDV remain important human and animal pathogens. Development of antivirals may significantly support current global vaccination campaigns. Cell entry is orchestrated by two interacting glycoproteins (H and F). The current hypothesis postulates that tetrameric H ectodomains (composed of stalk, connector, and head domains) undergo receptor-induced rearrangements to productively trigger F; these conformational changes may be regulated by the H-stalk C-terminal module (linker) and the following connector domain. Mutagenesis scan analysis of both microdomains revealed that replacing amino acid 146 in the H-linker region with nonhydrophobic residues produced covalent H tetramers which were compromised in triggering membrane fusion activity. However, these mutant proteins retained their ability to traffic to the cell surface and to bind to the virus receptor. These data suggest that the morbillivirus linker module contributes to the folding of functional pre-F-triggering H tetramers. Furthermore, such structures might be critical to convert receptor engagement into F activation.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH) > Experimental Clinical Research
05 Veterinary Medicine > Research Foci > NeuroCenter

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)

UniBE Contributor:

Herren, Michael; Shrestha, Neeta; Wyss, Marianne; Zurbriggen, Andreas and Plattet, Philippe

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology

ISSN:

0022-538X

Publisher:

American Society for Microbiology

Language:

English

Submitter:

Philippe Plattet

Date Deposited:

05 Sep 2018 17:59

Last Modified:

24 Oct 2019 09:26

Publisher DOI:

10.1128/JVI.00679-18

PubMed ID:

29997204

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Morbillivirus attachment protein host cell invasion linker module membrane fusion activation protein folding stalk domain

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.119805

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/119805

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