Non-invasive estimation of cardiac index in healthy volunteers.

Eyeington, C T; Ancona, P; Cioccari, Luca; Luethi, N; Glassford, N J; Eastwood, G M; Proimos, H K; Franceschi, F; Chan, M J; Jones, D; Bellomo, R (2018). Non-invasive estimation of cardiac index in healthy volunteers. Anaesthesia and intensive care, 46(3), pp. 290-296. Australian Society of Anaesthetists

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The primary objective was to non-invasively measure the cardiac index (CI) and associated haemodynamic parameters of healthy volunteers and their changes with age. This was a single centre, prospective, observational study of healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 59 years, using the ClearSight™ (Edwards Life Sciences, Irvine, CA, USA) device. We recorded 514 observations in 97 participants. The mean CI was 3.5 l/min/m<sup>2</sup> (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.4 to 3.7 l/min/m<sup>2</sup>). The mean stroke volume index (SVI) was 47 ml/m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI 45 to 49 ml/m<sup>2</sup>) and the mean systemic vascular resistance index was 2,242 dyne.s/cm<sup>5</sup>/m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI 2,124 to 2,365 dyne.s/cm<sup>5</sup>/m<sup>2</sup>). There was an inverse linear relationship between increasing age and CI (<i>P</i> <0.0001), which decreased by 0.044 l/min/m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI  -0.032 to -0.056 l/min/m<sup>2</sup>) per year. This change was mostly due to a decrease in SVI of 0.45 ml/m<sup>2</sup> (95% CI 0.32 to 0.57 ml/m<sup>2</sup>) per year (<i>P</i> <0.0001). The mean CI of young healthy humans is approximately 3.5 l/min/m<sup>2</sup> and declines by approximately 40 ml/min/m<sup>2</sup> per year, mostly due to a decline in stroke volume (SV). These findings have significant implications regarding the clinical interpretation of haemodynamic parameters and the application of these results to individual patients.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Anaesthesiology (DINA) > Clinic of Intensive Care

UniBE Contributor:

Cioccari, Luca (A)


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Australian Society of Anaesthetists




Mirella Aeberhard

Date Deposited:

20 Feb 2019 10:04

Last Modified:

29 Mar 2023 23:36

PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

cardiac index cardiac output haemodynamic monitoring healthy volunteers non-invasive stroke volume


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