Meloxicam affects the inflammatory responses of bovine mammary epithelial cells.

Caldeira, M O; Bruckmaier, R. M.; Wellnitz, O (2019). Meloxicam affects the inflammatory responses of bovine mammary epithelial cells. Journal of dairy science, 102(11), pp. 10277-10290. American Dairy Science Association 10.3168/jds.2019-16630

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used as supportive therapy with antimicrobial treatments for mastitis in cows to alleviate pain of the inflamed mammary gland. They act mainly by inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Meloxicam (MEL) is a drug designed for cyclooxygenase-2 selectivity, which is upregulated upon inflammation, acting as a key enzyme for the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Although some studies in dairy cows showed positive results in recovery from mastitis when MEL was added to the treatments, direct effects of MEL on the immune system of mastitic cows are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of MEL on the immune response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC) with or without simultaneous immune stimulation by pathogen-associated molecular patterns of common mastitis pathogens. Mammary epithelial cells from 4 cows were isolated and cultured. To evaluate dose effects of MEL, MEC were challenged with or without 0.2 µg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS; serotype O26:B6 from Escherichia coli) with addition of increasing concentrations of MEL (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/mL). The addition of MEL prevented the increase of mRNA expression of key inflammatory factors in LPS-challenged MEC in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the effects of MEL on pathogen-specific immune responses of MEC, treatments included challenges with LPS from E. coli and lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus with or without 1.5 mg/mL MEL for 3, 6, and 24 h. Meloxicam prevented the increase of mRNA abundance of key inflammatory mediators in response to LPS and lipoteichoic acid, such as tumor necrosis factor, serum amyloid A, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and the chemokines IL-8 and CXC chemokine ligands 3 and 5. The prostaglandin E2 synthesis in challenged and nonchallenged cells was reduced by MEL within 24 h. Furthermore, MEL reduced the viability and consequently the total RNA yield of the cells. However, mRNA abundance of apoptosis-related enzymes was not affected by any treatment. Meloxicam had clear dose-dependent effects on the immune response of MEC to pathogen-associated molecular patterns of common mastitis pathogens by preventing increased expression of important factors involved in inflammation. This nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug also has detrimental effects on cell viability. How these effects would influence the elimination of pathogens from an infected mammary gland during mastitis therapy with meloxicam needs to be further investigated.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH) > Veterinary Physiology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health (DCR-VPH)

UniBE Contributor:

Bruckmaier, Rupert

Subjects:

500 Science
500 Science > 590 Animals (Zoology)

ISSN:

0022-0302

Publisher:

American Dairy Science Association

Language:

English

Submitter:

Hélène Elisabeth Meier

Date Deposited:

03 Feb 2020 14:50

Last Modified:

03 Feb 2020 14:50

Publisher DOI:

10.3168/jds.2019-16630

PubMed ID:

31447141

Uncontrolled Keywords:

mammary gland mastitis meloxicam nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.138778

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/138778

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