High-frequency ultrasound, computed tomography and computed tomography arthrography of the cranial cruciate ligament, menisci and cranial meniscotibial ligaments in 10 radiographically normal canine cadaver stifles

Van der Vekens, Elke; de Bakker, Evelien; Bogaerts, Evelien; Broeckx, Bart J. G.; Ducatelle, Richard; Kromhout, Kaatje; Saunders, Jimmy H. (2019). High-frequency ultrasound, computed tomography and computed tomography arthrography of the cranial cruciate ligament, menisci and cranial meniscotibial ligaments in 10 radiographically normal canine cadaver stifles. BMC veterinary research, 15(1), p. 146. BioMed Central 10.1186/s12917-019-1892-y

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Background: Bilateral non-traumatic cranial cruciate disease is frequently seen in originally unilateral cruciate pathology. Untreated cranial cruciate ligament disease and concurrent meniscal lesions cause progressive osteoarthritis and pain of the stifle joint. Early presurgical diagnosis is important, but remains difficult.
The purpose of this ex vivo study was (1) to describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the canine cranial cruciate ligament (CrCrL), menisci and meniscal ligaments using a high-frequency linear transducer, (2) to determine the length of the CrCrL seen on ultrasonography (US) and (3) to describe and compare the appearance of the CrCrL, menisci and meniscal ligaments on US, computed tomography (CT) and computed tomography arthrography (CTA).

Results: US and CT examinations were performed on 10 radiographically normal cadaveric stifles of adult dogs weighing more than 15 kg, followed by macroscopic and histologic evaluations. The CrCrL had a parallel hyperechoic fibrillar pattern at the insertion on the tibia and a hypoechoic structure more proximally in all stifles. This pattern was visible over 35% (median) of the total length of the ligament, with 50% (median) of the total length CrCrL that could be outlined. All medial menisci and 8 out of 10 of the lateral menisci showed hypoechoic lines within their bodies oriented obliquely to the direction of the ultrasound beam. Fifteen of the 20 cranial meniscotibial ligaments were detected, showing a hyperechoic fibrillar pattern. Normal macro- and microscopic appearance was observed in all menisci, with the radial bundles of collagen fibers at the level of and with similar orientation as the intrameniscal hypoechoic lines on US.
The CrCrL, menisci and meniscal ligaments were of intermediate density on CT, but marked improvement of the border detection was obtained using CTA. Contrast within the CrCrL was observed in 4/10 stifles using CT and confirmed in 3/4 stifles on histology. One of these ligaments had a partial tear (5–10%) on macroscopic evaluation. None of the menisci showed any abnormalities on CTA.

Conclusions: Normal canine menisci are heterogeneous on high-frequency US and a fibrillar pattern may be observed in the cranial meniscotibial ligaments and the distal portion of the CrCrL. Linear areas of contrast may be detected within the cranial cruciate ligament of radiographically normal stifles.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine (DKV) > DKV - Clinical Radiology

UniBE Contributor:

Van der Vekens, Elke

Subjects:

500 Science > 590 Animals (Zoology)
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1746-6148

Publisher:

BioMed Central

Language:

English

Submitter:

Aiko Matter

Date Deposited:

14 Feb 2020 08:38

Last Modified:

11 Mar 2021 22:28

Publisher DOI:

10.1186/s12917-019-1892-y

PubMed ID:

31088469

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.139707

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/139707

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