The Planetary Accretion Shock. II. Grid of Postshock Entropies and Radiative Shock Efficiencies for Nonequilibrium Radiation Transport

Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique; Mordasini, Christoph; Kuiper, Rolf (2019). The Planetary Accretion Shock. II. Grid of Postshock Entropies and Radiative Shock Efficiencies for Nonequilibrium Radiation Transport. Astrophysical journal, 881(2), p. 144. Institute of Physics Publishing IOP 10.3847/1538-4357/ab245b

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In the core-accretion formation scenario of gas giants, most of the gas accreting onto a planet is processed through an accretion shock. In this series of papers we study this shock since it is key in setting the forming planet's structure and thus its post-formation luminosity, with dramatic observational consequences. We perform one-dimensional grey radiation-hydrodynamical simulations with non-equilibrium (two-temperature) radiation transport and up-to-date opacities. We survey the parameter space of accretion rate, planet mass, and planet radius and obtain post-shock temperatures, pressures, and entropies, as well as global radiation efficiencies. We find that usually, the shock temperature Tshock is given by the "free-streaming" limit. At low temperatures the dust opacity can make the shock hotter but not significantly. We corroborate this with an original semi-analytical derivation of Tshock . We also estimate the change in luminosity between the shock and the nebula. Neither Tshock nor the luminosity profile depend directly on the optical depth between the shock and the nebula. Rather, Tshock depends on the immediate pre-shock opacity, and the luminosity change on the equation of state (EOS). We find quite high immediate post-shock entropies (S ≈ 13-20 kB/mH⁻¹), which makes it seem unlikely that the shock can cool the planet. The global radiation efficiencies are high (ηphys ≥ 97%) but the remainder of the total incoming energy, which is brought into the planet, exceeds the internal luminosity of classical cold starts by orders of magnitude. Overall, these findings suggest that warm or hot starts are more plausible.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > NCCR PlanetS
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Space Research and Planetary Sciences
08 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute > Space Research and Planetary Sciences > Theoretical Astrophysics and Planetary Science (TAPS)

UniBE Contributor:

Marleau, Gabriel-Dominique and Mordasini, Christoph

Subjects:

500 Science > 530 Physics
500 Science > 520 Astronomy
600 Technology > 620 Engineering
500 Science

ISSN:

0004-637X

Publisher:

Institute of Physics Publishing IOP

Language:

English

Submitter:

Janine Jungo

Date Deposited:

21 Apr 2020 14:00

Last Modified:

26 Apr 2020 02:47

Publisher DOI:

10.3847/1538-4357/ab245b

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.142992

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/142992

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