The effect of optimistic expectancies on attention bias: Neural and behavioral correlates.

Singh, Laura; Schüpbach, Laurent; Moser, Dominik A.; Wiest, Roland; Hermans, Erno J; Aue, Tatjana (2020). The effect of optimistic expectancies on attention bias: Neural and behavioral correlates. Scientific reports, 10(1), p. 6495. Springer Nature 10.1038/s41598-020-61440-1

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Optimism bias and positive attention bias are important features of healthy information processing. Recent findings suggest dynamic bidirectional optimism-attention interactions, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain to be identified. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, therefore, investigated the neural mechanisms underlying causal effects of optimistic expectancies on attention. We hypothesized that expectancies guide attention to confirmatory evidence in the environment, with enhanced salience and executive control network (SN/ECN) activity for unexpected information. Moreover, based on previous findings, we anticipated optimistic expectancies to more strongly impact attention and SN/ECN activity than pessimistic expectancies. Expectancies were induced with visual cues in 50 participants; subsequent attention to reward and punishment was assessed in a visual search task. As hypothesized, cues shortened reaction times to expected information, and unexpected information enhanced SN/ECN activity. Notably, these effects were stronger for optimistic than pessimistic expectancy cues. Our findings suggest that optimistic expectancies involve particularly strong predictions of reward, causing automatic guidance of attention to reward and great surprise about unexpected punishment. Such great surprise may be counteracted by visual avoidance of the punishing evidence, as revealed by prior evidence, thereby reducing the need to update (over)optimistic reward expectancies.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Psychology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine (DRNN) > Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology

UniBE Contributor:

Schüpbach, Laurent; Moser, Dominik; Wiest, Roland and Aue, Tatjana

Subjects:

100 Philosophy > 150 Psychology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

2045-2322

Publisher:

Springer Nature

Funders:

[4] Swiss National Science Foundation

Projects:

Projects 0 not found.

Language:

English

Submitter:

Martin Zbinden

Date Deposited:

27 Apr 2020 08:57

Last Modified:

27 May 2020 08:48

Publisher DOI:

10.1038/s41598-020-61440-1

PubMed ID:

32300214

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.143470

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/143470

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