Learning how to break bad news from worked examples: does the presentation format matter when hints are embedded? Results from randomised and blinded field trials

Schmitz, Felix Michael; Schnabel, Kai Philipp; Bauer, Daniel; Woermann, Ulrich; Guttormsen, Sissel (2020). Learning how to break bad news from worked examples: does the presentation format matter when hints are embedded? Results from randomised and blinded field trials. Patient education and counseling, 103(9), pp. 1850-1855. Elsevier Ireland https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2020.03.022

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Objectives: Video-based worked examples enable medical students to successfully prepare for breaking- bad-news (BBN) encounters with simulated patients (SPs). This is especially true when examples include hints that signal important content. This paper investigates whether the beneficial effect of hints only applies to video-based worked examples or also text-based examples.
Methods: One-hundred-and-forty-seven fourth-year medical students attending a BBN training participated in either of two equally scaffolded, randomised field trials. Prior to encountering SPs, the students worked through an e-learning module introducing the SPIKES protocol for delivering bad news; it contained the same worked example presented to either of four groups as text or video, with or without additional hints denoting the SPIKES steps being implemented.
Results: Only a main effect of ‘hints’ was revealed, implying that students in the hints groups delivered the news to an SP significantly more appropriately than those in the without-hints groups.
Conclusions: Independent of their presentation format, worked examples with hints best foster students’ BBN skills learning.
Practice implications: In addition to video, text-based worked examples can effectively prepare students for BBN simulations if hints are included. This offers an affordable alternative to video examples, as text examples can be generated with less effort.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Medical Education > Institute for Medical Education

UniBE Contributor:

Schmitz, Felix; Schnabel, Kai; Bauer, Daniel; Woermann, Ulrich and Guttormsen, Sissel

Subjects:

300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 370 Education
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health

ISSN:

1873-5134

Publisher:

Elsevier Ireland

Language:

English

Submitter:

Felix Schmitz

Date Deposited:

12 May 2020 14:04

Last Modified:

11 Aug 2020 01:32

Publisher DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2020.03.022

PubMed ID:

32303364

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Computer-assisted instruction Audio-video demonstration Text demonstration Medical students Patient simulation Truth disclosure Comparative study

BORIS DOI:

10.7892/boris.143955

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/143955

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