Defining Spotting in Dance: A Delphi Method Study Evaluating Expert Opinions

Haber, Catherine; Schärli, Andrea (2021). Defining Spotting in Dance: A Delphi Method Study Evaluating Expert Opinions. Frontiers in psychology, 12, p. 540396. Frontiers Research Foundation 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.540396

Haber_Sch_rli_2021_Frontiers_Spotting.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (387kB) | Preview

Spotting is a typical isolated head coordination used by many dancers during rotation.
However, with sporadic and inconclusive explanations as to why dancers spot, the
critical characteristics and functionalities of spotting have yet to be identified. Therefore,
a Delphi method survey was used as a novel methodology for providing greater
insights into this under-examined motor behavior, bringing together experts from various
disciplines to generate ideas and identify the crucial elements of spotting. Following the
selection of experts, three rounds of data collection and analysis were conducted to
narrow down relevant topics and evaluate consensus. To gather opinions in Round
1, experts were asked to respond freely to three prompts regarding the reasoning,
characteristics, and uses of successfully spotting; responses were then grouped into
predominant items. To rate agreement in Round 2, experts rated their agreement on
the relevance of the grouped items from Round 1 on a 5-point Likert scale; items
rated 4 or 5 by at least 70% of the experts were taken as those consensually
relevant to the group. To rank importance in Round 3, Best-Worst Scaling was used
to determine individual rankings of the relevant items from Round 2. In a series of
comparisons, experts were prompted to select the most and least important items in
multiple sub-groupings. Group mean ranking of items as well as ranking concordance
and differentiation were analyzed to determine the most important items and the
strength of consensus, respectively. Overall, consensus and differentiation in experts’
item rankings were low; however, novel insights were presented. As characteristics of
successfully spotting, experts emphasized head isolation, timing, and gaze specificity
alongside functional characteristics, substantiating spotting as purposeful action in
rotation. Building on traditional notions of spotting for reduced dizziness and maintaining
balance, successfully spotting was further deemed useful for multiple turns, orientation,
and rhythm. The findings of this study thus provide informed guidelines for future analysis
and training of this complex head coordination in rotations.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Sport Science (ISPW)
07 Faculty of Human Sciences > Institute of Sport Science (ISPW) > Movement and Exercise Science

UniBE Contributor:

Haber, Catherine Michelle, Schärli, Andrea


700 Arts > 790 Sports, games & entertainment
700 Arts




Frontiers Research Foundation




Andrea Melanie Schärli van de Langenberg

Date Deposited:

15 Jul 2021 16:48

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 15:51

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback