Menopause and cardiometabolic diseases: What we (don't) know and why it matters.

Roa-Díaz, Zayne M.; Raguindin, Peter Francis; Bano, Arjola; Laine, Jessica E.; Muka, Taulant; Glisic, Marija (2021). Menopause and cardiometabolic diseases: What we (don't) know and why it matters. Maturitas, 152, pp. 48-56. Elsevier 10.1016/j.maturitas.2021.06.013

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This narrative review discusses the current understanding, knowledge gaps and challenges in expanding our knowledge of the association between menopause and the reproductive aging process and cardiometabolic disease (CMD) in women, with a focus on type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The physiological changes that occur at different stages of the reproductive life span, as well as type of menopause and timing, are factors widely associated with CMD risk; however, the underlying mechanisms remain either unclear or insufficiently studied. Decreased ovarian estrogen production and relative androgen excess around menopause onset are the most studied factors linking menopause and cardiometabolic health; nevertheless, the evidence is not persuasive and other hypotheses might explain the changes in CMD risk during menopausal transition. In this context, hormone therapy has been widely adopted in the treatment and prevention of CMD, although uncertainty regarding its cardiometabolic effects has raised the need to optimize therapeutic modalities. Mechanisms such as the "iron overload theory" and new "omics" platforms could provide new insights into potential pathways underlying the association between menopause and cardiometabolic health, such as the DNA damage response. Although it has been widely reported that environmental and lifestyle factors affect both menopause and cardiometabolic health, there is little evidence on the role of these exposures in menopause-associated CMD risk.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Cardiovascular Disorders (DHGE) > Clinic of Cardiology

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Health Sciences (GHS)

UniBE Contributor:

Roa Diaz, Zayne Milena, Raguindin, Peter Francis, Bano, Arjola, Laine Carmeli, Jessica Evelyn, Muka, Taulant, Glisic, Marija


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services






[4] Swiss National Science Foundation




Andrea Flükiger-Flückiger

Date Deposited:

23 Nov 2021 18:15

Last Modified:

03 Jan 2023 14:27

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Menopause Narrative review Women's health




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