Endocrinological and inflammatory markers in individuals with spinal cord injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Boehl, Gabriela; Raguindin, Peter Francis; Valido, Ezra; Bertolo, Alessandro; Itodo, Oche Adam; Minder, Beatrice; Lampart, Patricia; Scheel-Sailer, Anke; Leichtle, Alexander; Glisic, Marija; Stoyanov, Jivko (2022). Endocrinological and inflammatory markers in individuals with spinal cord injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders, 23(5), pp. 1035-1050. Springer 10.1007/s11154-022-09742-9

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Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to dramatic physiological changes which can be a factor in developing secondary health conditions and might be reflected in biomarker changes in this elevated risk group. We focused specifically on the endocrine and inflammation profile differences between SCI and able-bodied individuals (ABI). Our aim was to determine the differences in inflammatory markers and endocrine profiles between SCI and ABI. We systematically searched 4 electronic databases for relevant studies. Human observational (cross-sectional, cohort, case-control) studies that compared biomarkers of interest between SCI and ABI population were included. Weighted mean difference between SCI and ABI was calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was computed using I2 statistic and chi-squared test. Study quality was evaluated through the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The search strategy yielded a total of 2,603 studies from which 256 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Sixty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis. SCI individuals had higher levels of pro-inflammatory C-reactive protein and IL-6 than ABI. Creatinine and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels were lower in SCI than ABI. Total testosterone levels and IGF-1 were also found to be lower, while cortisol and leptin levels were higher in SCI when compared to ABI. Accordingly, meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and leave-one-out analysis were performed, however, they were only able to partially explain the high levels of heterogeneity. Individuals with SCI show higher levels of inflammatory markers and present significant endocrinological changes when compared to ABI. Moreover, higher incidence of obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, and hypogonadism in SCI individuals, together with decreased creatinine levels reflect some of the readily measurable aspects of the phenotype changes in the SCI group. These findings need to be considered in anticipating medically related complications and personalizing SCI medical care.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Orthopaedic, Plastic and Hand Surgery (DOPH) > Clinic of Orthopaedic Surgery
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Institute of Clinical Chemistry
13 Central Units > Administrative Director's Office > University Library of Bern

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Health Sciences (GHS)

UniBE Contributor:

Raguindin, Peter Francis, Bertolo, Alessandro, Itodo, Oche Adam, Minder, Beatrice, Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt (B), Glisic, Marija, Stoyanov, Jivko


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services
000 Computer science, knowledge & systems > 020 Library & information sciences








Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

19 Aug 2022 11:13

Last Modified:

02 Mar 2023 23:36

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Additional Information:

Boel and Raguindin contributed equally to this work.

Open Access Funding provided by the University of Bern

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Growth factors Hormones Inflammatory markers Metabolism Spinal cord injury Vitamin D





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