A systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the incidence of thyroid diseases.

Alwan, Heba; Aponte Ribero, Valerie; Efthimiou, Orestis; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Rodondi, Nicolas; Duntas, Leonidas (2024). A systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the relationship between metabolic syndrome and the incidence of thyroid diseases. Endocrine, 84(2), pp. 320-327. Springer 10.1007/s12020-023-03503-7

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To assess the prospective association between metabolic syndrome (MetS), its components, and incidence of thyroid disorders by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.


A systematic search was performed in Ovid Medline, Embase.com, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to February 22, 2023. Publications from prospective studies were included if they provided data on baseline MetS status or one of its components and assessed the incidence of thyroid disorders over time. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for developing thyroid disorders.


After full-text screening of 2927 articles, seven studies met our inclusion criteria. Two of these studies assessed MetS as an exposure (N = 71,727) and were included in our meta-analysis. The association between MetS at baseline and incidence of overt hypothyroidism at follow-up yielded an OR of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-1.16 for two studies, I2 = 0%). Pooled analysis was not possible for subclinical hypothyroidism, due to large heterogeneity (I2 = 92.3%), nor for hyperthyroidism, as only one study assessed this association. We found evidence of an increased risk of overt (RR: 3.10 (1.56-4.64, I2 = 0%) and subclinical hypothyroidism (RR 1.50 (1.05-1.94), I2 = 0%) in individuals with obesity at baseline. There was a lower odds of developing overt hyperthyroidism in individuals with prediabetes at baseline (OR: 0.68 (0.47-0.98), I2 = 0%).


We were unable to draw firm conclusions regarding the association between MetS and the incidence of thyroid disorders due to the limited number of available studies and the presence of important heterogeneity in reporting results. However, we did find an association between obesity at baseline and incidence of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Medical Education > Institute of General Practice and Primary Care (BIHAM)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of General Internal Medicine (DAIM) > Clinic of General Internal Medicine > Centre of Competence for General Internal Medicine

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Health Sciences (GHS)

UniBE Contributor:

Al-Alwan, Heba, Aponte Ribero, Valerie Liliana, Efthimiou, Orestis, Del Giovane, Cinzia, Rodondi, Nicolas


300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health






[4] Swiss National Science Foundation




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

11 Sep 2023 11:20

Last Modified:

04 Jun 2024 19:35

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Additional Information:

Open Access funding provided by University of Bern.

Uncontrolled Keywords:

Diabetes Incidence Metabolic syndrome Thyroid disorders





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