Ribosomal RNA expansion segments and their role in ribosome biology.

Rauscher, Robert; Polacek, Norbert (2024). Ribosomal RNA expansion segments and their role in ribosome biology. (In Press). Biochemical Society transactions Portland Press 10.1042/BST20231106

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Ribosomes are universally conserved cellular machines that catalyze protein biosynthesis. The active sites underly immense evolutionary conservation resulting in virtually identical core structures of ribosomes in all domains of life including organellar ribosomes. However, more peripheral structures of cytosolic ribosomes changed during evolution accommodating new functions and regulatory options. The expansion occurred at the riboprotein level, including more and larger ribosomal proteins and at the RNA level increasing the length of ribosomal RNA. Expansions within the ribosomal RNA occur as clusters at conserved sites that face toward the periphery of the cytosolic ribosome. Recent biochemical and structural work has shed light on how rRNA-specific expansion segments (ESs) recruit factors during translation and how they modulate translation dynamics in the cytosol. Here we focus on recent work on yeast, human and trypanosomal cytosolic ribosomes that explores the role of two specific rRNA ESs within the small and large subunit respectively. While no single regulatory strategy exists, the absence of ESs has consequences for proteomic stability and cellular fitness, rendering them fascinating evolutionary tools for tailored protein biosynthesis.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences (DCBP)

UniBE Contributor:

Rauscher, Robert, Polacek, Norbert

ISSN:

0300-5127

Publisher:

Portland Press

Language:

English

Submitter:

Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

03 May 2024 12:14

Last Modified:

03 May 2024 12:23

Publisher DOI:

10.1042/BST20231106

PubMed ID:

38695725

Uncontrolled Keywords:

cotranslational factor recruitment nascent peptide chain maturation rRNA expansion segments translation elongation translation regulation

BORIS DOI:

10.48350/196463

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/196463

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