Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time

Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno; Egger, M; Furrer, H; Keiser, O; Rauch, Andri; Schöni-Affolter, F; Swiss HIV Cohort Study, (2014). Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time. Statistics in medicine, 33(1), pp. 2-16. Wiley-Blackwell 10.1002/sim.5910

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If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Department of Haematology, Oncology, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory Medicine and Hospital Pharmacy (DOLS) > Clinic of Infectiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

UniBE Contributor:

Egger, Matthias, Furrer, Hansjakob, Keiser, Olivia, Rauch, Andri, Schöni-Affolter, Franziska


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services








Doris Kopp Heim

Date Deposited:

19 Mar 2014 17:14

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 14:28

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Additional Information:

Swiss H. I. V. Cohort Study (Members from the Univ Bern: Egger M, Furrer H, Keiser O, Rauch A, Schöni-Affolter F)

Uncontrolled Keywords:

BIC longitudinal mixed-effects models measurement error underlying baseline measurement




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