BID-dependent release of mitochondrial SMAC dampens XIAP-mediated immunity against Shigella

Andree, Maria; Seeger, Jens M.; Schüll, Stephan; Coutelle, Oliver; Wagner-Stippich, Diana; Wiegmann, Katja; Wunderlich, Claudia M.; Birkmann, Kerstin; Broxtermann, Pia; Witt, Axel; Fritsch, Melanie; Martinelli, Paola; Bielig, Harald; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rugarli, Elena I.; Kaufmann, Thomas; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wunderlich, F. Thomas; Villunger, Andreas; Martins, L. Miguel; ... (2014). BID-dependent release of mitochondrial SMAC dampens XIAP-mediated immunity against Shigella. EMBO journal, 33(19), pp. 2171-2187. Nature Publishing Group 10.15252/embj.201387244

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The X‐linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent caspase inhibitor, best known for its anti‐apoptotic function in cancer. During apoptosis, XIAP is antagonized by SMAC, which is released from the mitochondria upon caspase‐mediated activation of BID. Recent studies suggest that XIAP is involved in immune signaling. Here, we explore XIAP as an important mediator of an immune response against the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Shigella evades the XIAP‐mediated immune response by inducing the BID‐dependent release of SMAC from the mitochondria. Unlike apoptotic stimuli, Shigella activates the calpain‐dependent cleavage of BID to trigger the release of SMAC, which antagonizes the inflammatory action of XIAP without inducing apoptosis. Our results demonstrate how the cellular death machinery can be subverted by an invasive pathogen to ensure bacterial colonization.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Pharmacology

UniBE Contributor:

Kaufmann, Thomas


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Nature Publishing Group




Anita Dähler

Date Deposited:

19 Jan 2015 13:59

Last Modified:

26 Jun 2016 01:57

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:





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