Bipartite Bell inequalities with three ternary-outcome measurements—from theory to experiments

Schwarz, Sacha; Bessire, Bänz; Stefanov, André; Liang, Yeong-Cherng (2016). Bipartite Bell inequalities with three ternary-outcome measurements—from theory to experiments. New journal of physics, 18(3), 035001. Institute of Physics Publishing IOP 10.1088/1367-2630/18/3/035001

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We explore quantum nonlocality in one of the simplest bipartite scenarios. Several new facet-defining Bell inequalities for the {[3 3 3] [3 3 3]} scenario are obtained with their quantum violations analyzed in details. Surprisingly, all these inequalities involving only genuine ternary-outcome measurements can be violated maximally by some two-qubit entangled states, such as the maximally entangled two-qubit state. This gives further evidence that in analyzing the quantum violation of Bell inequalities, or in the application of the latter to device-independent quantum information processing tasks, the commonly held wisdom of equating the local Hilbert space dimension of the optimal state with the number of measurement outcomes is not necessarily justifiable. In addition, when restricted to the minimal qubit subspace, it can be shown that one of these Bell inequalities requires non-projective measurements to attain maximal quantum violation, thereby giving the first example of a facet-defining Bell inequality where a genuine positive-operator-valued measure is relevant. We experimentally demonstrate the quantum violation of this and two other Bell inequalities for this scenario using energy–time entangled photon pairs. Using the obtained measurement statistics, we demonstrate how characterization of the underlying resource in the spirit of device-independence, but supplemented with auxiliary assumptions, can be achieved. In particular, we discuss how one may get around the fact that, due to finite-size effects, raw measurement statistics typically violate the non-signaling condition.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Applied Physics
08 Faculty of Science > Institute of Applied Physics > Lasers

UniBE Contributor:

Schwarz, Sacha Michael, Bessire, Bänz, Stefanov, André


600 Technology > 620 Engineering
500 Science
500 Science > 530 Physics




Institute of Physics Publishing IOP




Simone Corry

Date Deposited:

13 Jul 2017 08:35

Last Modified:

02 Mar 2023 23:29

Publisher DOI:





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