Tumour budding: a promising parameter in colorectal cancer

Lugli, A; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Zlobec, I (2012). Tumour budding: a promising parameter in colorectal cancer. British journal of cancer, 106(11), pp. 1713-7. Basingstoke: Nature Publishing Group 10.1038/bjc.2012.127

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In 2011, the Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) staging system still remains the gold standard for stratifying colorectal cancer (CRC) patients into prognostic subgroups, and is considered a solid basis for treatment management. Nevertheless, there is still a challenge with regard to therapeutic strategy; stage II patients are not typically selected for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, although some stage II patients have a comparable outcome to stage III patients who, themselves do receive such treatment. Consequently, there has been an inundation of 'prognostic biomarker' studies aiming to improve the prognostic stratification power of the TNM staging system. Most proposed biomarkers are not implemented because of lack of reproducibility, validation and standardisation. This problem can be partially resolved by following the REMARK guidelines. In search of novel prognostic factors for patients with CRC, one might glance at a table in the book entitled 'Prognostic Factors in Cancer' published by the International Union against Cancer (UICC) in 2006, in which TNM stage, L and V classifications are considered 'essential' prognostic factors, whereas tumour grade, perineural invasion, tumour budding and tumour-border configuration among others are proposed as 'additional' prognostic factors. Histopathology reports normally include the 'essential' features and are accompanied by tumour grade, histological subtype and information on perineural invasion, but interestingly, the tumour-border configuration (i.e., growth pattern) and especially tumour budding are rarely reported. Although scoring systems such as the 'BRE' in breast and 'Gleason' in prostate cancer are solidly based on histomorphological features and used in daily practice, no such additional scoring system to complement TNM staging is available for CRC. Regardless of differences in study design and methods for tumour-budding assessment, the prognostic power of tumour budding has been confirmed by dozens of study groups worldwide, suggesting that tumour budding may be a valuable candidate for inclusion into a future prognostic scoring system for CRC. This mini-review therefore attempts to present a short and concise overview on tumour budding, including morphological, molecular and prognostic aspects underlining its inter-disciplinary relevance.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Pathology > Clinical Pathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Pathology

UniBE Contributor:

Lugli, Alessandro, Karamitopoulou Diamantis, Evanthia, Zlobec, Inti




Nature Publishing Group




Factscience Import

Date Deposited:

04 Oct 2013 14:32

Last Modified:

02 Mar 2023 23:21

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Web of Science ID:



https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/12482 (FactScience: 218831)

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