Small but Powerful: The Human Vault RNAs as Multifaceted Modulators of Pro-Survival Characteristics and Tumorigenesis

Gallo, Stefano; Kong, Eunbin; Ferro, Iolanda; Polacek, Norbert (2022). Small but Powerful: The Human Vault RNAs as Multifaceted Modulators of Pro-Survival Characteristics and Tumorigenesis. Cancers, 14(11), p. 2787. MDPI AG 10.3390/cancers14112787

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The importance of non-coding RNAs for regulating gene expression has been uncovered in model systems spanning all three domains of life. More recently, their involvement in modulating signal transduction, cell proliferation, tumorigenesis and cancer progression has also made them promising tools and targets for oncotherapy. Recent studies revealed a class of highly conserved small ncRNAs, namely vault RNAs, as regulators of several cellular homeostasis mechanisms. The human genome encodes four vault RNA paralogs that share significant sequence and structural similarities, yet they seem to possess distinct roles in mammalian cells. The alteration of vault RNA expression levels has frequently been observed in cancer tissues, thus hinting at a putative role in orchestrating pro-survival characteristics. Over the last decade, significant advances have been achieved in clarifying the relationship between vault RNA and cellular mechanisms involved in cancer development. It became increasingly clear that vault RNAs are involved in controlling apoptosis, lysosome biogenesis and function, as well as autophagy in several malignant cell lines, most likely by modulating signaling pathways (e.g., the pro-survival MAPK cascade). In this review, we discuss the identified and known functions of the human vault RNAs in the context of cell proliferation, tumorigenesis and chemotherapy resistance.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)

Division/Institute:

08 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences (DCBP)

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)

UniBE Contributor:

Gallo, Stefano; Kong, Eunbin; Ferro, Iolanda and Polacek, Norbert

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
500 Science > 540 Chemistry

ISSN:

2072-6694

Publisher:

MDPI AG

Language:

English

Submitter:

Christina Schüpbach

Date Deposited:

08 Jun 2022 14:48

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 16:20

Publisher DOI:

10.3390/cancers14112787

BORIS DOI:

10.48350/170455

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/170455

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