Removal of the Erns RNase Activity and of the 3' Untranslated Region Polyuridine Insertion in a Low-Virulence Classical Swine Fever Virus Triggers a Cytokine Storm and Lethal Disease.

Wang, Miaomiao; Bohórquez, José Alejandro; Muñoz-González, Sara; Gerber, Markus; Alberch, Mònica; Pérez-Simó, Marta; Abad, Xavier; Liniger, Matthias; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne (2022). Removal of the Erns RNase Activity and of the 3' Untranslated Region Polyuridine Insertion in a Low-Virulence Classical Swine Fever Virus Triggers a Cytokine Storm and Lethal Disease. Journal of virology, 96(14), e0043822. American Society for Microbiology 10.1128/jvi.00438-22

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In this study, we assessed the potential synergistic effect of the Erns RNase activity and the poly-U insertion in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the low-virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) isolate Pinar de Rio (PdR) in innate and adaptive immunity regulation and its relationship with classical swine fever (CSF) pathogenesis in pigs. We knocked out the Erns RNase activity of PdR and replaced the long polyuridine sequence of the 3' UTR with 5 uridines found typically at this position, resulting in a double mutant, vPdR-H30K-5U. This mutant induced severe CSF in 5-day-old piglets and 3-week-old pigs, with higher lethality in the newborn (89.5%) than in the older (33.3%) pigs. However, the viremia and viral excretion were surprisingly low, while the virus load was high in the tonsils. Only alpha interferon (IFN-α) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) were highly and consistently elevated in the two groups. Additionally, high IL-8 levels were found in the newborn but not in the older pigs. This points toward a role of these cytokines in the CSF outcome, with age-related differences. The disproportional activation of innate immunity might limit systemic viral spread from the tonsils and increase virus clearance, inducing strong cytokine-mediated symptoms. Infection with vPdR-H30K-5U resulted in poor neutralizing antibody responses compared with results obtained previously with the parent and RNase knockout PdR. This study shows for the first time the synergistic effect of the 3' UTR and the Erns RNase function in regulating innate immunity against CSFV, favoring virus replication in target tissue and thus contributing to disease severity. IMPORTANCE CSF is one of the most relevant viral epizootic diseases of swine, with high economic and sanitary impact. Systematic stamping out of infected herds with and without vaccination has permitted regional virus eradication. However, the causative agent, CSFV, persists in certain areas of the world, leading to disease reemergence. Nowadays, low- and moderate-virulence strains that could induce unapparent CSF forms are prevalent, posing a challenge for disease eradication. Here, we show for the first time the synergistic role of lacking the Erns RNase activity and the 3' UTR polyuridine insertion from a low-virulence CSFV isolate in innate immunity disproportional activation. This might limit systemic viral spread to the tonsils and increase virus clearance, inducing strong cytokine-mediated symptoms, thus contributing to disease severity. These results highlight the role played by the Erns RNase activity and the 3' UTR in CSFV pathogenesis, providing new perspectives for novel diagnostic tools and vaccine strategies.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP) > Institute of Virology and Immunology
05 Veterinary Medicine > Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathobiology (DIP)

UniBE Contributor:

Gerber, Markus Daniel; Liniger, Matthias and Ruggli, Nicolas

Subjects:

600 Technology > 630 Agriculture

ISSN:

0022-538X

Publisher:

American Society for Microbiology

Language:

English

Submitter:

Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

28 Jun 2022 09:41

Last Modified:

05 Dec 2022 16:21

Publisher DOI:

10.1128/jvi.00438-22

PubMed ID:

35758667

Uncontrolled Keywords:

classical swine fever virus cytokine-mediated symptoms diagnostic tools and vaccine strategies disease severity innate and adaptive immunity pigs tonsil vaccine designs viral replication viral spread virulence factors

BORIS DOI:

10.48350/170966

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/170966

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