Socio-demographic characteristics associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in Switzerland: longitudinal analysis of the CoMix study.

Reichmuth, Martina L; Heron, Leonie; Riou, Julien; Moser, André; Hauser, Anthony; Low, Nicola; Althaus, Christian L (2023). Socio-demographic characteristics associated with COVID-19 vaccination uptake in Switzerland: longitudinal analysis of the CoMix study. BMC public health, 23(1), p. 1523. BioMed Central 10.1186/s12889-023-16405-0

s12889-023-16405-0.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons: Attribution (CC-BY).

Download (1MB) | Preview


Vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the uptake of COVID-19 vaccination has varied across and within countries. Switzerland has had lower levels of COVID-19 vaccination uptake in the general population than many other high-income countries. Understanding the socio-demographic factors associated with vaccination uptake can help to inform future vaccination strategies to increase uptake.


We conducted a longitudinal online survey in the Swiss population, consisting of six survey waves from June to September 2021. Participants provided information on socio-demographic characteristics, history of testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), social contacts, willingness to be vaccinated, and vaccination status. We used a multivariable Poisson regression model to estimate the adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of COVID-19 vaccine uptake.


We recorded 6,758 observations from 1,884 adults. For the regression analysis, we included 3,513 observations from 1,883 participants. By September 2021, 600 (75%) of 806 study participants had received at least one vaccine dose. Participants who were older, male, and students, had a higher educational level, household income, and number of social contacts, and lived in a household with a medically vulnerable person were more likely to have received at least one vaccine dose. Female participants, those who lived in rural areas and smaller households, and people who perceived COVID-19 measures as being too strict were less likely to be vaccinated. We found no significant association between previous SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccination uptake.


Our results suggest that socio-demographic factors as well as individual behaviours and attitudes played an important role in COVID-19 vaccination uptake in Switzerland. Therefore, appropriate communication with the public is needed to ensure that public health interventions are accepted and implemented by the population. Tailored COVID-19 vaccination strategies in Switzerland that aim to improve uptake should target specific subgroups such as women, people from rural areas or people with lower socio-demographic status.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Department of Clinical Research (DCR)
04 Faculty of Medicine > Pre-clinic Human Medicine > Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM)

UniBE Contributor:

Reichmuth, Martina Larissa, Heron, Leonie, Riou, Julien Yannis, Moser, André, Hauser, Anthony Willy, Low, Nicola, Althaus, Christian


600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health
300 Social sciences, sociology & anthropology > 360 Social problems & social services




BioMed Central


[222] Horizon 2020 ; [191] Swiss Federal Office of Public Health = Bundesamt für Gesundheit ; [4] Swiss National Science Foundation




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

11 Aug 2023 10:50

Last Modified:

20 Feb 2024 14:15

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

COVID-19 Contact survey Social contact Socio-demographic characteristics Switzerland Vaccine




Actions (login required)

Edit item Edit item
Provide Feedback