Evolving precision: rRNA expansion segment 7S modulates translation velocity and accuracy in eukaryal ribosomes.

Rauscher, Robert; Eggers, Cristian; Dimitrova-Paternoga, Lyudmila; Shankar, Vaishnavi; Rosina, Alessia; Cristodero, Marina; Paternoga, Helge; Wilson, Daniel N; Leidel, Sebastian A; Polacek, Norbert (2024). Evolving precision: rRNA expansion segment 7S modulates translation velocity and accuracy in eukaryal ribosomes. Nucleic acids research, 52(7), pp. 4021-4036. Oxford University Press 10.1093/nar/gkae067

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Ribosome-enhanced translational miscoding of the genetic code causes protein dysfunction and loss of cellular fitness. During evolution, open reading frame length increased, necessitating mechanisms for enhanced translation fidelity. Indeed, eukaryal ribosomes are more accurate than bacterial counterparts, despite their virtually identical, conserved active centers. During the evolution of eukaryotic organisms ribosome expansions at the rRNA and protein level occurred, which potentially increases the options for translation regulation and cotranslational events. Here we tested the hypothesis that ribosomal RNA expansions can modulate the core function of the ribosome, faithful protein synthesis. We demonstrate that a short expansion segment present in all eukaryotes' small subunit, ES7S, is crucial for accurate protein synthesis as its presence adjusts codon-specific velocities and guarantees high levels of cognate tRNA selection. Deletion of ES7S in yeast enhances mistranslation and causes protein destabilization and aggregation, dramatically reducing cellular fitness. Removal of ES7S did not alter ribosome architecture but altered the structural dynamics of inter-subunit bridges thus affecting A-tRNA selection. Exchanging the yeast ES7S sequence with the human ES7S increases accuracy whereas shortening causes the opposite effect. Our study demonstrates that ES7S provided eukaryal ribosomes with higher accuracy without perturbing the structurally conserved decoding center.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)


08 Faculty of Science > Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences (DCBP)

Graduate School:

Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences (GCB)

UniBE Contributor:

Rauscher, Robert, Eggers Aracena, Cristian Eduardo, Ganapathy Shankar, Vaishnavi, Rosina, Alessia, Cristodero, Marina, Leidel, Sebastian Andreas, Polacek, Norbert


500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
500 Science > 540 Chemistry
000 Computer science, knowledge & systems




Oxford University Press




Pubmed Import

Date Deposited:

08 Feb 2024 14:17

Last Modified:

25 Apr 2024 00:14

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:






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