Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas.

Kölzer, Viktor; Langer, Rupert; Zlobec, Inti; Lugli, Alessandro (2014). Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas. Frontiers in oncology, 4(216), p. 216. Frontiers Research Foundation 10.3389/fonc.2014.00216

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The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual's risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB) at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon, and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal, and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction, and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: (1) validation of prognostic scoring systems for TB in large, multi-center studies, (2) consensus on the optimal assessment method, and (3) inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Review Article)


04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Pathology > Clinical Pathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute of Pathology

UniBE Contributor:

Kölzer, Viktor; Langer, Rupert; Zlobec, Inti and Lugli, Alessandro


500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology
600 Technology > 610 Medicine & health




Frontiers Research Foundation




Doris Haefelin

Date Deposited:

13 Feb 2015 08:52

Last Modified:

24 Feb 2021 00:52

Publisher DOI:


PubMed ID:


Uncontrolled Keywords:

epithelial–mesenchymal transition, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, prognostic factor, tumor budding, tumor microenvironment





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