Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative: a prospective analysis of surveillance data

Brueggemann, Angela B; Jansen van Rensburg, Melissa J; Shaw, David; McCarthy, Noel D; Jolley, Keith A; Maiden, Martin C J; van der Linden, Mark P G; Amin-Chowdhury, Zahin; Bennett, Désirée E; Borrow, Ray; Brandileone, Maria-Cristina C; Broughton, Karen; Campbell, Ruth; Cao, Bin; Casanova, Carlo; Choi, Eun Hwa; Chu, Yiu Wai; Clark, Stephen A; Claus, Heike; Coelho, Juliana; ... (2021). Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative: a prospective analysis of surveillance data. The Lancet. Digital health, 3(6), e360-e370. Elsevier 10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00077-7

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Background
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods
In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed.

Findings
27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 434 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27–0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14–0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded.

Interpretation
The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide.

Item Type:

Journal Article (Original Article)

Division/Institute:

04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute for Infectious Diseases > Research
04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute for Infectious Diseases > Clinical Microbiology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute for Infectious Diseases > General Bacteriology
04 Faculty of Medicine > Service Sector > Institute for Infectious Diseases > Bacteriology

UniBE Contributor:

Casanova, Carlo and Hilty, Markus

Subjects:

500 Science > 570 Life sciences; biology

ISSN:

2589-7500

Publisher:

Elsevier

Language:

English

Submitter:

Markus Hilty

Date Deposited:

10 Nov 2021 09:59

Last Modified:

10 Nov 2021 09:59

Publisher DOI:

10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00077-7

BORIS DOI:

10.48350/160011

URI:

https://boris.unibe.ch/id/eprint/160011

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